Wednesday, November 20, 2013

On this Day in History - November 20 Nuremberg Trials Begin

Once again, it should be reiterated, that this does not pretend to be a very extensive history of what happened on this day (nor is it the most original - the links can be found down below). If you know something that I am missing, by all means, shoot me an email or leave a comment, and let me know!

Nov 20, 1945: Nuremberg war-crimes trials begin

On this day in 1945, a series of trials of accused Nazi war criminals, conducted by a U.S., French, and Soviet military tribunal based in Nuremberg, Germany, begins. Twenty-four former Nazi officials were tried, and when it was all over, one year later, half would be sentenced to death by hanging.  

These trials of accused war criminals were authorized by the London Agreement, signed in August 1945 by the United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the provisional government of France. It was agreed at that time that those Axis officials whose war crimes extended beyond a particular geographic area would be tried by an international war tribunal (a trial for accused Japanese war criminals would be held in Tokyo). Nineteen other nations would eventually sign on to the provisions of the agreement.  

The charges against the 24 accused at Nuremberg were as follows: (1) crimes against peace, that is, the planning and waging of wars that violated international treaties; (2) crimes against humanity, that is, the deportation, extermination, and genocide of various populations; (3) war crimes, that is, those activities that violated the "rules" of war that had been laid down in light of the First World War and later international agreements; and (4) conspiracy to commit any and all of the crimes listed in the first three counts.  

The tribunal had the authority to find both individuals and organizations criminal; in the event of the latter, individual members of that organization could then be tried. Each of the four original signatories of the London Agreement picked one member and an alternate to sit on the tribunal. The chief prosecutor was U.S. Supreme Court Justice Robert H. Jackson, who was asked by President Harry S. Truman to create a structure for the proceedings. The defendants were arrayed in two rows of seats; each of the indicted listened to a simultaneous translation of the arguments through a headset.  

There were 216 court sessions. On October 1, 1946, verdicts on 22 of the 24 defendants were handed down (two were not present; one had committed suicide in his prison cell, another was ultimately deemed mentally unfit): 12 of the defendants were sentenced to be hanged, including Julius Streicher (propagandist), Alfred Rosenberg (anti-Semitic ideologue and minister of the occupied eastern territories), Joachim von Ribbentrop (foreign affairs minister), Martin Bormann (Nazi Party secretary), and Herman Goering (Luftwaffe commander and Gestapo head). Ten of the 12 were hanged on October 16. Bormann was tried and sentenced in absentia (he was thought to have died trying to escape Hitler's bunker at the close of the war, but was only declared officially dead in 1973). Goering committed suicide before he could be hanged. The rest of the defendants received prison sentences ranging from 10 years to life. All of the defenses offered by the accused were rejected, including the notion that only a state, not an individual, could commit a war crime proper.

Nov 20, 1969: Seymour Hersh files follow-up to My Lai story

In the United States, Seymour Hersh, an independent investigative journalist, files a second My Lai story based on interviews with Michael Terry and Michael Bernhardt, who served under 1st Lt. William Calley during the action that was later dubbed the My Lai massacre.  

Also on this day, the Cleveland Plain Dealer published explicit photos of the dead at My Lai. The American public was stunned. Hersh broke the story earlier in the month, describing how soldiers from the Americal Division conducting a sweep of My Lai indiscriminately shot people as they ran from their huts, and then systematically rounded up the survivors, allegedly leading them to a ditch where they were executed per Calley's orders.  

Despite the fact that an Army board of inquiry found that 30 persons either participated in the atrocity or knew of it and failed to do anything, only 14 were charged with crimes. All eventually had their charges dismissed or were acquitted, except Calley, who was found guilty of murdering 22 civilians and was sentenced to life imprisonment. His sentence was reduced twice and he was paroled in November 1974.

Nov 20, 1789: New Jersey ratifies the Bill of Rights

On this day in 1789, New Jersey ratifies the Bill of Rights, becoming the first state to do so. New Jersey's action was a first step toward making the first 10 amendments to the Constitution law and completing the revolutionary reforms begun by the Declaration of Independence.  

The Anti-Federalist critics of the U.S. Constitution were afraid that a too-strong federal government would become just another sort of the monarchical regime from which they had recently been freed. They believed that the Constitution gave too much power to the federal government by outlining its rights but failing to delineate the rights of the individuals living under it. Before the Massachusetts ratifying convention would accept the Constitution, then, which they finally did in February 1788, the document's Federalist supporters had to promise to create a Bill of Rights to be amended to the Constitution immediately upon the creation of a new government under the document. This helped to assuage the Anti-Federalists' concerns.  

As promised, the newly elected Congress drafted the Bill of Rights on December 25, 1789. Drafted by James Madison and loosely based on Virginia's Declaration of Rights, the first 10 amendments give the following rights to all United States citizens:  

1. Freedom of religion, speech and assembly 
2. Right to keep and bear arms for the purpose of a well-regulated militia  
3. No forcible quartering of soldiers during peacetime  
4. Freedom from unreasonable search and seizure  
5. Right to a grand jury for capital crimes and due process. Protection from double jeopardy, self-incrimination and public confiscation of private property without "just compensation"  
6. Right to "speedy and public" trial by jury and a competent defense  
7. Right to trial by jury for monetary cases above $20  
8. Protection against "excessive" bail or fines and "cruel and unusual" punishments  
9. Rights not enumerated are "retained by the people"  
10. Rights not given to the federal government or prohibited the state governments by the Constitution, "are reserved to the States... or to the people"

Nov 20, 2003: Music producer Phil Spector indicted for murder of actress   

On this day in 2003, Phil Spector, the influential, eccentric music producer who worked with a long list of performers including The Righteous Brothers, The Ronettes, Ike and Tina Turner, John Lennon and the Ramones, is indicted in the murder of actress Lana Clarkson. Spector pled not guilty to the charges.  

The 40-year-old Clarkson was found dead from a single gunshot wound to the mouth in the foyer of Spector’s Alhambra, California mansion in the early hours of February 3, 2003. Clarkson, who appeared in a string of B-movies such as Barbarian Queen II: The Empress Strikes Back (1989), met Spector earlier that same night at the House of Blues in West Hollywood, where she worked as a hostess, and subsequently returned with him to his home. Police responded to a 911 call and found Clarkson’s body. Spector’s limo driver, who was waiting outside in the car at the time of Clarkson’s death, testified that the music producer came outside with a gun in his hand and told him, “I think I killed somebody.” However, Spector later stated that the actress’s death was an “accidental suicide.”  

Spector, who was born on December 26, 1940, in New York City, rose to prominence in the music industry in the 1960s. He had enormous success as a songwriter and producer and pioneered a production technique known as the “Wall of Sound.” He also developed a reputation as an eccentric with a bad temper and a fascination with guns. By the time of Clarkson’s death, Spector lived a largely reclusive existence.  

Following Spector’s indictment on second-degree murder charges, his case experienced a series of delays before opening statements finally began on April 25, 2007. During the high-profile trial, defense attorneys argued that at the time of Clarkson’s death, the tall, blonde actress was depressed over the state of her failing career and troubled personal life and therefore killed herself. The prosecution, in turn, put several female witnesses on the stand who testified about Spector’s history of violence toward women.  

Throughout the trial, Spector appeared in court sporting flamboyant outfits and an array of dramatic hairstyles. He also worked his way through a series of well-known defense lawyers over the course of his legal troubles, including O.J. Simpson’s attorney Robert Shapiro, the Menendez brothers’ lawyer Leslie Abramson and the former John Gotti counselor Bruce Cutler.  

Closing arguments in Spector’s trial were made on September 7, 2007. On September 26, the jury announced it was deadlocked (voting 10-2 in favor of conviction) and unable to reach a verdict and the judge declared a mistrial. However, a retrial began in October 2008, and April 2009, Spector was convicted of second-degree murder. He was sentenced to 19 years to life in prison in May 2009. Spector was 69 years old at the time of sentencing, and would be eligible for parole at age 88.

Here's a more detailed look at events that transpired on this date throughout history:

284 - Diocletian is proclaimed Roman Emperor by his soldiers in the army of the east
762 - Bögü, Khan of the Uyghurs, conquers Lo-Yang, capital of the Chinese Empire.
1168 - Giovanni di Struma elected anti-Pope
1194 - Palermo is conquered by Emperor Henry VI.
1272 - Edward I proclaimed King of England
1342 - Pope Clemens VI names John IV of Arkel as bishop of Utrecht
1347 - Coke di Rienzo, later Roman Tribunal, addressess a meeting of on the Capitol during people's revolt in Rome
1407 - A truce between John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy and Louis of Valois, Duke of Orléans is agreed under the auspices of John, Duke of Berry. Orléans would be assassinated three days later by Burgundy.
1431 - 1st meeting of Order of Guilder Flies
1520 - Friesland hit by heavy hail storm
1521 - Arabs attribute shortage of water in Jerusalem to Jews making wine
1583 - Duke of Parma conquerors Aalst
1616 - Bishop Richelieu becomes French minister of Foreign affairs/War
1637 - Peter Minuit & 1st Swedish immigrants to Delaware sail from Sweden
1695 - Zumbi, the last of the leaders of Quilombo dos Palmares in early Brazil and ex-slave, is executed.
1719 - Sweden & Hannover sign peace Treaty of Stockholm
1755 - English minister William Pitt Sr resigns
1759 - -22] Battle in Bay of Quiberon, British beat French
1789 - New Jersey is 1st state to ratify Bill of Rights
British Prime Minister (The Great Commoner) William Pitt the ElderBritish Prime Minister (The Great Commoner) William Pitt the Elder 1795 - Curacao government forbids slave work on Sunday
1805 - Beethoven's "Fidelio," premieres in Vienna
1815 - 2nd Peace of Paris: France & allies after 2nd defeat and abdication of Napoleon Bonaparte.
1815 - Russia, Prussia, Austria & England signs Alliance "for the maintenance of peace in Europe" same day as Treaty of Paris
1817 - 1st Seminole War begins in Florida
1829 - Jews expelled from Nikolayev & Sevastopol Russia
1833 - Charles Darwin reaches Punta Gorda, sees Rio Uruguay
1852 - Charles Reade/Tom Taylor's "Masks & Faces," premieres in London
1861 - Secession ordinance is filed by Kentucky's Confederate government.
1862 - Confederate armies of Mississippi and Kentucky merge as Army of Tennessee, under General Braxton Bragg
1866 - 1st natl convention of Grand Army of Republic (veterans' org)
1866 - Howard University founded (Washington DC)
1866 - Pierre Lalemont patents rotary crank bicycle
1873 - Rival cities of Buda & Pest unite to form the capital of Hungary
1888 - William Bundy patents timecard clock
Naturalist Charles DarwinNaturalist Charles Darwin 1889 - Gustav Mahler's 1st Symphony
1890 - Pope Leo XIII encyclical "On Slavery in the Missions"
1894 - US intervenes in Bluefields, Nicaragua
1901 - Opera "Grisélidis" is produced (Paris)
1902 - Geo Lefevre & Henri Desgrange create Tour de France bicycle race
1906 - George Bernard Shaws "Doctor's Dilemma," premieres in London
1909 - Jack Williams of Ottawa Rough Riders kicks 9 singles in a game
1910 - Revolution broke out in Mexico, led by Francisco I Madero
1911 - Gustav Mahler's "Das Lied von der Erde" (Song of the Earth) premieres in Munich
1914 - US State Department starts requiring photographs for passports
1915 - 7th CFL Grey Cup: Hamilton Tigers defeats Toronto Rowing, 13-7
1917 - 1st tank battle (Britain breaks through German lines)
1917 - Ukrainian Republic declared
1919 - 1st municipally owned airport in US opens (Tucson Az)
1920 - Nobel Peace Prize awarded to US president W Wilson
Playwright George Bernard ShawPlaywright George Bernard Shaw 1922 - Zoe Akins' "Texas Nightingale," premieres in NYC
1923 - Garrett Morgan invents & patents traffic signal
1923 - Rentenmark replaces the Papiermark as the official currency of Germany at the exchange rate of one Rentenmark to One Trillion (One Billion on the long scale) Papiermark
1928 - Boston Gardens opens, Mont Canadiens beat Boston Bruins, 1-0
1928 - WGH-AM in Newport News VA begins radio transmissions
1929 - 1st broadcast of "Goldbergs" on US radio
1929 - Salvador Dali's 1st one-man show
1931 - Commercial teletype service begins (AT&T)
1932 - Earthquake at Uden Netherlands
1934 - Eiji Sawamura, 17, gives up 1 hit, Lou Gehrig's HR, US beats Japan 1-0
1934 - Lillian Hellman's "Children's Hour," premieres in NYC
1934 - New Belgian government of Theunis, Francqui & Gutt (3 bankers)
1934 - Tornoto Maple Leaf Harvey Jackson is 1st to score 4 goals in 1 period
1936 - Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera, founder of the Falange is killed by a republican execution squad.
1938 - 1st documented anti-semitic remarks over US radio (by Father Coughlin)
Painter Salvador DaliPainter Salvador Dali 1940 - German air raid on Birmingham fails
1940 - Hungary joins 3 Power pact
1940 - World War II: Hungary, Romania and Slovakia join the Axis Powers.
1941 - Adm Nomura & Kurusu hands over Japanese last diplomatic note
1941 - German Q/pirate ship Kormoran sinks near Australia
1942 - 26th Russian Armoured Corps recaptures Perelazovski
1942 - British 8th Army recaptures Benghazi, Libya
1942 - NHL abolishes regular season OT until WW II is over
1942 - Soviet army offensive, 1 million Russians breach German lines
1943 - U-538 sinks in Atlantic Ocean
1943 - US forces land on Tarawa & Makin Atoll in Gilbert Island
1944 - 1st Japanse suicide submarine attack (Ulithi Atol, Carolines)
1944 - Amsterdam: Vondelpark closed because of kappen of trees
1944 - Prince Bernhard establishes staff in Breda
1945 - 24 Nazi leaders put on trial at Nuremberg, Germany
1945 - Dmitri Sjostakovitch's 9th Symphony under J Mravinski premieres
1945 - Queen Wilhelmina opens parliament in Hague
1946 - Lillian Hellman's "Another Part of the Forest," premieres in NYC
1947 - "Meet the Press" makes network TV debut on NBC
1947 - 1st permanent TV installed on seagoing vessel (New Jersey)
1947 - Pope Pius XII publishes encyclical Mediator Dei
1947 - UN General assembly begins debate on printing their own stamps
1948 - US balloon reaches height of 42.7 km (record)
1949 - Jewish population of Israel reaches 1,000,000
1951 - Snowdonia becomes a National Park
1952 - Cubs slugger Hank Sauer wins NL MVP
1952 - George Axelrods "7 Year Itch," premieres in NYC
Soviet Union Premier Joseph StalinSoviet Union Premier Joseph Stalin 1952 - Slánský trials begin - a series of Stalinist and anti-Semitic show trials in Czechoslovakia.
1953 - Scott Crossfield in Douglas Skyrocket, 1st to break Mach 2 (1,300 MPH)
1954 - KTRK TV channel 13 in Houston, TX (ABC) begins broadcasting
1955 - Kripal Singh scores 100 on Test Cricket debut, India v NZ
1955 - Polly Umrigar scores India's 1st Test Cricket double century, 223 v NZ
1957 - Morton Wishengrad's "Rope Dancers," premieres in NYC
1959 - UN adopts Universal Declaration of Children's Rights
1959 - WABC fires Alan Freed over payola scandal
1961 - WPLG TV channel 10 in Miami, FL (ABC) begins broadcasting
1962 - Mickey Mantle wins AL MVP
1962 - USSR agrees to remove bombers from Cuba, & US lifts blockade
1964 - Dmitri Sjostakovitch's 9th/10th String Quartet premiers in Moscow
1965 - "Pickwick" closes at 46th St Theater NYC after 56 performances
1965 - UN Security council calls for boycott of Rhodesia
1965 - WCNY TV channel 24 in Syracuse, NY (PBS) begins broadcasting
1966 - "Cabaret" opens at Broadhurst Theater NYC for 1166 performances
1966 - Clifford Ann Creed wins LPGA Success Golf Open
1966 - Dallas sacks Pittsburgh QBs an NFL record 12 times
1966 - Men in Zurich vote against female suffrage
1967 - At 11 AM, Census Clock at Dept of Commerce ticks past 200 million
1967 - Mets pitcher Tom Seaver (16-12) is named NL Rookie of Year
1968 - US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1969 - Alcatraz Island off SF, is seized by militant Native Americans
1969 - Gundappa Viswanath scores 137 on Test Cricket debut v Australia Kanpur
Brazilian Football Legend PeleBrazilian Football Legend Pele 1969 - Pele scores his 1,000th soccer goal
1969 - SF Giant Willie McCovey edges Tom Seaver as NL MVP
1970 - UN General Assembly accepts membership of China PR
1971 - US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1974 - Rangers' Jeff Burroughs wins AL MVP
1974 - The US files antitrust suit to break-up AT&T
1975 - Ronald Reagan announces candidacy for Republican nomination for US President
1976 - George Harrison appears on Saturday Night Live
1976 - Judy Rankin wins LPGA Colgate-Hong Kong Golf Open
1977 - Egyptian Pres Sadat became 1st Arab leader to address Israeli Knesset
1977 - Steve Largent begins NFL streak of 177 consecutive game receptions
1977 - Walter Payton (Bears) rushes for NFL-record 275 yards
1979 - Sji'ieten occupies great mosque of Mecca, 100s killed
1979 - US's 1st artificial blood transfusion occurs at U of Minn Hospital
1980 - Billy Martin named AL Manager of Year (Oakland A's)
NFL Running Back Walter PaytonNFL Running Back Walter Payton 1980 - Steve Ptacek in Solar Challenger makes 1st solar-powered flight
1980 - UA withdraws $44 million movie "Heaven's Gate" for reediting
1981 - Anatoly Karpov, USSR retains world chess championship
1981 - Burundia adopts its constitution
1981 - El Salvador guerrilla group FMLN opens "limited offensive"
1981 - Ringo releases "Stop & Smell Roses" album
1982 - Drew Barrymore at age 7 hosts Saturday Night Live
1983 - "Marilyn: An American Fable" opens at Minskoff NYC for 16 perfs
1983 - 100 million watch ABC-TV movie "Day After," about nuclear war
1983 - Cleveland Browns shutout Patriots 30-0
1983 - NY Giants Butch Woolfolk ties NFL record of 43 attempts rushing
1984 - McDonald's made its 50 billionth hamburger
1984 - Mets pitcher Dwight Gooden wins NL Rookie of Year
1984 - SETI is founded.
1985 - NY Yankee Don Mattingly easily wins AL MVP
Actress Drew BarrymoreActress Drew Barrymore 1985 - Microsoft Windows 1.0 is released.
1986 - Afghanistan President Babrak Karmal flees
1986 - UN's WHO announces 1st global effort to combat AIDS
1988 - "Les Miserables," opens a Bus & Truck tour in Tampa
1989 - Milwaukee Brewers center fielder Robin Yount wins AL MVP
1990 - Oakland's Rickey Henderson wins AL MVP
1990 - Sacramento Kings last NBA win on the road for over a year
1990 - Thatcher fails to defeat Heseltine's bid for party leadership
1990 - US 68th manned space mission STS 38 (Atlantis 7) returns from space
1991 - Atlanta Braves Terry Pendleton wins NL MVP
1992 - Queen Elizabeth's home Windsor Castle catches fire
1993 - Jakovlev-42 crashes into mountain at Ohrid Macedonia, 116 killed
1993 - Sam's Town Bowling Invitational won by Robin Romeo
1993 - Winnie Mandela's driver/bodyguard murdered in Johannesburg
1993 - Savings and Loan scandal: The United States Senate Ethics Committee issues a stern censure of California senator Alan Cranston for his "dealings" with savings-and-loan executive Charles Keating.
1994 - "Flying Karamzov Brothers..." opens at Helen Hayes NYC for 50 perfs
1994 - "Shadow Box" opens at Circle in Sq Theater NYC for 49 performances
1994 - Kosmos 2294/2295/2296 launches
1994 - The Angolan government and UNITA rebels sign the Lusaka Protocol in Zambia, ending 19 years of civil war (localized fighting resumed the next year).
1995 - "Beatles' Anthology, Vol 1" released
1995 - "Racing Demon" opens at Vivian Beaumont Theater NYC for 48 perfs
1995 - FDA approves new therapy for use as an initial AIDS treatment, 3TC
1995 - Princess Di admits she cheated on Prince Charles in a TV interview
1995 - STS 74 (Atlantis 15), lands
1997 - "Ivanov," opens at Vivian Beaumont Theater NYC for 51 performances
1997 - Flyers Eric Lindros tries to bite San Jose defenseman Marty McSorley
1997 - Last original Florida Marlin, Jeff Conine, traded to KC Royals
1997 - Mavericks' A C Green sets NBA record of 907 consecutive games played
1997 - NY Islanders lose, beginning a 10 game losing streak
Islamic Militant & Terrorist Osama bin LadenIslamic Militant & Terrorist Osama bin Laden 1998 - A court in Taliban-controlled Afghanistan declares accused terrorist Osama bin Laden "a man without a sin" in regard to the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania.
1998 - The first module of the International Space Station, Zarya, is launched.
2001 - In Washington, D.C., U.S. President George W. Bush dedicates the United States Department of Justice headquarters building as the Robert F. Kennedy Justice Building, honoring the late Robert F. Kennedy on what would have been his 76th birthday.
2003 - After the November 15 bombings, a second day of the 2003 Istanbul Bombings occurs in Istanbul, Turkey, destroying the Turkish head office of HSBC Bank AS and the British consulate.
2008 - After critical failures in the US financial system began to build up after mid-September, the Dow Jones Industrial Average reaches its lowest level since 1997.
2012 - Toshiba unveils a robot designed to help in nuclear disasters

1789 - New Jersey became the first state to ratify the Bill of Rights.   1818 - Simon Bolivar formally declared Venezuela independent of Spain.   1873 - Budapest was formed when the rival cities of Buda and Pest were united to form the capital of Hungary.   1901 - The second Hay-Pauncefoot Treaty provided for construction of the Panama Canal by the U.S.   1910 - Francisco I. Madero led a revolution that broke out in Mexico.   1929 - The radio program "The Rise of the Goldbergs," later known as "The Goldbergs," made its debut on the NBC Blue Network.   1943 - During World War II, U.S. Marines began their landing on Tarawa and Makin atolls in the Gilbert Islands.   1945 - 24 Nazi leaders went before an international war crimes tribunal in Nuremberg, Germany.   1947 - Britain's Princess Elizabeth married Philip Mountbatten, Duke of Edinburgh in Westminster Abbey.   1959 - Britain, Norway, Portugal, Switzerland, Austria, Denmark and Sweden met to create the European Free Trade Association.   1962 - The Cuban Missile Crisis ended. The Soviet Union removed its missiles and bombers from Cuba and the U.S. ended its blockade of the island.   1962 - Mickey Mantle was named the American League Most Valuable Player for the third time.   1967 - The Census Clock at the Department of Commerce in Washington, DC, went past 200 million.   1969 - The Nixon administration announced a halt to residential use of the pesticide DDT as part of a total phase out of the substance.   1970 - The majority in U.N. General Assembly voted to give China a seat, but two-thirds majority required for admission was not met.   1977 - Egyptian President Anwar Sadat became the first Arab leader to address Israel's parliament.   1983 - An estimated 100 million people watched the controversial ABC-TV movie "The Day After." The movie depicted the outbreak of nuclear war.   1986 - Dr. Halfdan Maher, the director of the World Health Organization, announced the first coordinated global effort to fight the disease AIDS.   1987 - Police investigating the fire at King's Cross, London's busiest subway station, said that arson was unlikely to be the cause of the event that took 31 lives.   1988 - Egypt and China announced that they would recognize the Palestinian state proclaimed by the Palestine National Council.   1989 - Over 200,000 people rallied peacefully in Prague, Czechoslovakia, demanding democratic reforms.   1990 - Saddam Hussein ordered another 250,000 Iraqi troops into the country of Kuwait.   1990 - The space shuttle Atlantis landed at Cape Canaveral, FL, after completing a secret military mission.   1992 - A fire seriously damaged the northwest side of Windsor Castle in England.   1993 - The U.S. Senate passed the Brady Bill and legislation implementing NAFTA.   1994 - The Angolan government and rebels signed a treaty in Zambia to end 19 years of war.   1995 - Princess Diana admitted being unfaithful to Prince Charles in an interview that was broadcast on BBC Television.   1998 - Afghanistan's Taliban militia offered Osama bin Laden safe haven. Osama bin Laden had been accused of orchestrating two U.S. embassy bombings in Africa and later terrorist attacks on New York City and the Pentagon.   1998 - Forty-six states agreed to a $206 billion settlement of health claims against the tobacco industry. The industry also agreed to give up billboard advertising of cigarettes.   2001 - The U.S. Justice Department headquarters building was renamed the Robert F. Kennedy building by President George W. Bush. The event was held on what would have been Kennedy's 76th birthday.

1789 New Jersey became the first state to ratify the Bill of Rights. 1910 Francisco Madero began an armed revolt against the president of Mexico, Porfirio Diaz. 1945 The war crimes trials of 24 German World War II leaders began in Nuremberg, Germany. 1947 The future Queen Elizabeth II married Philip Mountbatten, Duke of Ediburgh. 1962 President John F. Kennedy agreed to lift the American blockade of Cuba, ending the Cuban missile crisis. 1975 Spain's General Francisco Franco died. 2000 Peru's president Alberto Fujimori resigned.

The following links are to web sites that were used to complete this blog entry:


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