Friday, October 25, 2013

On this Day in History - October 25 Pablo Picasso Born/ Invasion of Grenada/ Batgtle of Agincourt

Once again, it should be reiterated, that this does not pretend to be a very extensive history of what happened on this day (nor is it the most original - the links can be found down below). If you know something that I am missing, by all means, shoot me an email or leave a comment, and let me know!

Oct 25, 1881: Pablo Picasso born

Pablo Picasso, one of the greatest and most influential artists of the 20th century, is born in Malaga, Spain. 

Picasso's father was a professor of drawing, and he bred his son for a career in academic art. Picasso had his first exhibit at age 13 and later quit art school so he could experiment full-time with modern art styles. He went to Paris for the first time in 1900, and in 1901 was given an exhibition at a gallery on Paris' rue Lafitte, a street known for its prestigious art galleries. The precocious 19-year-old Spaniard was at the time a relative unknown outside Barcelona, but he had already produced hundreds of paintings. Winning favorable reviews, he stayed in Paris for the rest of the year and later returned to the city to settle permanently.  

The work of Picasso, which comprises more than 50,000 paintings, drawings, engravings, sculptures, and ceramics produced over 80 years, is described in a series of overlapping periods. His first notable period--the "blue period"—began shortly after his first Paris exhibit. In works such as The Old Guitarist (1903), Picasso painted in blue tones to evoke the melancholy world of the poor. The blue period was followed by the "rose period," in which he often depicted circus scenes, and then by Picasso's early work in sculpture. In 1907, Picasso painted the groundbreaking work Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, which, with its fragmented and distorted representation of the human form, broke from previous European art. Les Demoiselles d'Avignon demonstrated the influence on Picasso of both African mask art and Paul Cezanne and is seen as a forerunner of the Cubist movement, founded by Picasso and the French painter Georges Braque in 1909.  

In Cubism, which is divided into two phases, analytical and synthetic, Picasso and Braque established the modern principle that artwork need not represent reality to have artistic value. Major Cubist works by Picasso included his costumes and sets for Sergey Diaghilev's Ballets Russes (1917) and The Three Musicians (1921). Picasso and Braque's Cubist experiments also resulted in the invention of several new artistic techniques, including collage.  

After Cubism, Picasso explored classical and Mediterranean themes, and images of violence and anguish increasingly appeared in his work. In 1937, this trend culminated in the masterpiece Guernica, a monumental work that evoked the horror and suffering endured by the Basque town of Guernica when it was destroyed by German war planes during the Spanish Civil War. Picasso remained in Paris during the Nazi occupation but was fervently opposed to fascism and after the war joined the French Communist Party.  

Picasso's work after World War II is less studied than his earlier creations, but he continued to work feverishly and enjoyed commercial and critical success. He produced fantastical works, experimented with ceramics, and painted variations on the works of other masters in the history of art. Known for his intense gaze and domineering personality, he had a series of intense and overlapping love affairs in his lifetime. He continued to produce art with undiminished force until his death in 1973 at the age of 91

Oct 25, 1415: Battle of Agincourt

During the Hundred Years' War between England and France, Henry V, the young king of England, leads his forces to victory at the Battle of Agincourt in northern France.  

Two months before, Henry had crossed the English Channel with 11,000 men and laid siege to Harfleur in Normandy. After five weeks the town surrendered, but Henry lost half his men to disease and battle casualties. He decided to march his army northeast to Calais, where he would meet the English fleet and return to England. At Agincourt, however, a vast French army of 20,000 men stood in his path, greatly outnumbering the exhausted English archers, knights, and men-at-arms.  

The battlefield lay on 1,000 yards of open ground between two woods, which prevented large-scale maneuvers and thus worked to Henry's advantage. At 11 a.m. on October 25, the battle commenced. The English stood their ground as French knights, weighed down by their heavy armor, began a slow advance across the muddy battlefield. The French were met by a furious bombardment of artillery from the English archers, who wielded innovative longbows with a range of 250 yards. French cavalrymen tried and failed to overwhelm the English positions, but the archers were protected by a line of pointed stakes. As more and more French knights made their way onto the crowded battlefield, their mobility decreased further, and some lacked even the room to raise their arms and strike a blow. At this point, Henry ordered his lightly equipped archers to rush forward with swords and axes, and the unencumbered Englishmen massacred the French.  

Almost 6,000 Frenchmen lost their lives during the Battle of Agincourt, while English deaths amounted to just over 400. With odds greater than three to one, Henry had won one of the great victories of military history. After further conquests in France, Henry V was recognized in 1420 as heir to the French throne and the regent of France. He was at the height of his powers but died just two years later of camp fever near Paris.

Oct 25, 1983: United States invades Grenada

President Ronald Reagan, citing the threat posed to American nationals on the Caribbean nation of Grenada by that nation's Marxist regime, orders the Marines to invade and secure their safety. There were nearly 1,000 Americans in Grenada at the time, many of them students at the island's medical school. In little more than a week, Grenada's government was overthrown.  

The situation on Grenada had been of concern to American officials since 1979, when the leftist Maurice Bishop seized power and began to develop close relations with Cuba. In 1983, another Marxist, Bernard Coard, had Bishop assassinated and took control of the government. Protesters clashed with the new government and violence escalated. Citing the danger to the U.S. citizens in Grenada, Reagan ordered nearly 2,000 U.S. troops into the island, where they soon found themselves facing opposition from Grenadan armed forces and groups of Cuban military engineers, in Grenada to repair and expand the island's airport. Matters were not helped by the fact that U.S. forces had to rely on minimal intelligence about the situation. (The maps used by many of them were, in fact, old tourist maps of the island.) Reagan ordered in more troops, and by the time the fighting was done, nearly 6,000 U.S. troops were in Grenada. Nearly 20 of these troops were killed and over a hundred wounded; over 60 Grenadan and Cuban troops were killed. Coard's government collapsed and was replaced by one acceptable to the United States.  

A number of Americans were skeptical of Reagan's defense of the invasion, noting that it took place just days after a disastrous explosion in a U.S. military installation in Lebanon killed over 240 U.S. troops, calling into question the use of military force to achieve U.S. goals. Nevertheless, the Reagan administration claimed a great victory, calling it the first "rollback" of communist influence since the beginning of the Cold War.

Oct 25, 1944: First kamikaze attack of the war begins

On this day in 1944, during the Battle of the Leyte Gulf, the Japanese deploy kamikaze ("divine wind") suicide bombers against American warships for the first time. It will prove costly--to both sides.  

This decision to employ suicide bombers against the American fleet at Leyte, an island of the Philippines, was based on the failure of conventional naval and aerial engagements to stop the American offensive. Declared Japanese naval Capt. Motoharu Okamura: "I firmly believe that the only way to swing the war in our favor is to resort to crash-dive attacks with our planes.... There will be more than enough volunteers for this chance to save our country."  

The first kamikaze force was in fact composed of 24 volunteer pilots from Japan's 201st Navy Air Group. The targets were U.S. escort carriers; one, the St. Lo, was struck by a A6M Zero fighter and sunk in less than an hour, killing 100 Americans. More than 5,000 kamikaze pilots died in the gulf battle-taking down 34 ships.  

For their kamikaze raids, the Japanese employed both conventional aircraft and specially designed planes, called Ohka ("cherry blossom") by the Japanese, but Baka ("fool") by the Americans, who saw them as acts of desperation. The Baka was a rocket-powered plane that was carried toward its target attached to the belly of a bomber.  

All told, more than 1,321 Japanese aircraft crash-dived their planes into Allied warships during the war, desperate efforts to reverse the growing Allied advantage in the Pacific. While approximately 3,000 Americans and Brits died because of these attacks, the damage done did not prevent the Allied capture of the Philippines, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa.

Here's a more detailed look at events that transpired on this date throughout history:

625 - Boniface V ends his reign as Catholic Pope
1131 - Crowning of Louis VII the Young, King of France
1147 - King Afonso I of Portugal occupiers Lisbon
1147 - Seljuk Turks defeat German crusaders under Conrad III at the Battle of Dorylaeum.
1241 - Goffredo Castiglioni elected as Pope Coelestinus IV (-Nov 10 1241)
1315 - Adam Banastre, Henry de Lea and William Bradshaw, led an attack on Liverpool Castle.
1415 - Battle of Agincourt, Welsh longbow defeats the armored knight
1415 - John IV van Bourgondy becomes duke of Brabant/Limburg
1492 - Columbus' fleet sites "Zandislands" (Ragged Island Range, Bahamas)
1492 - Christopher Columbus' ship Santa Maria lands at Dominican Republic
1521 - Emperor Charles V bans wooden buildings in Amsterdam
1555 - Emperor Karel puts son Philip II in charge of Netherlands/Naples/Milan
1577 - Pope Gregory XIII asks renewal of ecclesiastical hymns
1596 - Spanish fleet sails from Lisbon to Ireland
1616 - VOC-ship "The Eendracht" discovers Dirk-Hartogeiland, Australia
1621 - Gov Bradford of US colony Plymouth disallows sport on Christmas Day
1666 - Brandenburg/Brunswick/Denmark/Neth form anti-French Quadruple Alliance
1671 - Giovanni Cassini discovers Iapetus, satellite of Saturn
1747 - British fleet under Admiral Sir Edward Hawke defeats the French at the second battle of Cape Finisterre.
Explorer of the New World Christopher ColumbusExplorer of the New World Christopher Columbus 1760 - George III becomes King of Great Britain.
1812 - US frigate United States captures British vessel Macedonian
1825 - Erie Canal opens, linking Great Lakes & Atlantic Ocean
1828 - The St Katharine Docks opened in London.
1854 - Charge of Light Brigade (Battle of Balaklava, Crimean War), 409 die
1854 - Prince Menshikov of Krim occupies British base at Balaclava
1859 - Merchant vessel Royal Charter runs aground at Liverpool, 459 die
1861 - Battle of Wilson's Creek, MI (Springfield)
1861 - Telegraph message sent from St Louis to SF
1861 - The Toronto Stock Exchange created.
1864 - Battle of Marais Des Cygnes River, Kansas (Mine Creek)
1864 - Skirmish at Mine Creek, KS & Turkeytown, AL
1870 - Pimlico Race Course opens in Baltimore
1870 - Postcards 1st used in US
1875 - The first performance of the Piano Concerto No. 1 by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky is given in Boston, Massachusetts with Hans von Bülow as soloist.
Composer Pyotr Ilyich TchaikovskyComposer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky 1884 - 1st World Series OK by AA, Providence (NL) sweeps NY Mets (AA) in 3
1885 - John Brahms' 4th Symphony in E, premieres
1891 - 1st International 6 day bike race (NY Madison Square Garden) ends
1893 - Battle of Shangani, Matabeleland: Dr Jameson beats Ndebeles
1900 - England annexes Transvaal
1902 - Maksin Gorki's "Na dne," premieres in Moscow
1902 - Santa Maria Guatemala hit by Earthquake; about 6,000 die
1906 - Georges Clemenceau succeeds Ferdinand Sarien premier of France
1906 - US inventor Lee de Forest patents "Audion," a 3-diode amplification valve which proved a pioneering development in radio & broadcasting
1907 - Frederik of Oaths disbands mental home colony Walden
1915 - Atty James L Curtis named minister of Liberia
1917 - Pan-Russian Congress opens in Petrograd
1918 - Canadian steamship "Princess Sophia" hit a reef off Alaska, 398 die
1923 - Senate committee publishes 1st report on Teapot Dome scandal
1924 - "Little Orphan Annie" comic strip 1st published
1925 - Lester Patrick takes over NY Rangers
1925 - Rightist German ministers disavows Treaty of Locarno
1926 - Lester Patrick becomes 1st coach & gm of NY Rangers
1929 - Former Interior Sec Albert Fall convicted of accepting $100,000 bribe
1930 - 1st football game in Atlantic City Convention Center
1930 - 1st scheduled transcontinental air service began
1932 - Dutch 2nd Chamber accepts Company consultant
Italian Dictator Benito MussoliniItalian Dictator Benito Mussolini 1932 - Benito Mussolini promises to remain dictator for 30 years
1935 - Hurricane-produced floods kill 2,000 in Jeremie & Jacmel Haiti
1937 - Belgian government of Zealand falls due to black money
1937 - Casey Stengel signs to manage Boston Bees
1938 - Japanese troops occupies Hankou & Wuhan
1938 - The Archbishop of Dubuque, Francis J. L. Beckman, denounces Swing music as "a degenerated musical system... turned loose to gnaw away at the moral fiber of young people", warning that it leads down a "primrose path to hell".
1939 - George Kaufman/Moss Hart's "Man Who Came to Dinner," premieres in NYC
1939 - William Saroyan's "Time of Your Life," premieres in NYC
1940 - Benjamin O Davis Dr became 1st Black general in US Army
1940 - Col Bo Davis attains rank of Brigadier General
1940 - Duke, Latouche & Felter's musical premieres in NYC
1940 - US Army Gen Benjamin Davis becomes 1st black general
1941 - 16,000 Jews massacred in Odessa Ukraine
1941 - Germany attacks Moscow
1941 - Winston Churchill routes "Forces South" to SE Asia
Soldier, author, journalist, politician Winston ChurchillSoldier, author, journalist, politician Winston Churchill 1942 - 3rd day of battle at El Alamein: British offensive
1942 - Battle of Henderson Field Guadalcanal begins
1942 - Field Marshal Rommel back in North-Africa
1943 - Burma railroad completed & opens
1944 - Battle at Cape Engano: 4 Japanese ships sink
1944 - Battle at Samar-island
1944 - Battle in Straits of Surigao: Japanese fleet destroyed
1944 - Gas output stopped in Amsterdam
1945 - Japanese surrender Taiwan to Gen Chiang Kai-shek
1946 - 1st trial against nazi war criminals (Neurenberg)
1947 - "Under the Counter" closes at Shubert Theater NYC after 27 perfs
1947 - Bradman scores 156 for SA v the Indians, 152 mins, 22 fours
1947 - Sam Breadon sells Cards to Robert Hannegan & Fred Saigh for $4M
1948 - Special Council of Annulment convicts F Weinreb for collaboration
1950 - Dutch NSB leader C van Gelderen sentenced to life
German WWII Field Marshal Erwin RommelGerman WWII Field Marshal Erwin Rommel 1950 - Jean Anouilh's "La Repetition, ou L'Amour Pani," premieres in Paris
1950 - Sukarno appointed president of Republic Indonesia
1951 - Peace talks aimed at ending Korean War resumed in Panmunjom
1952 - 1st Dutch edition of youth magazine "Donald Duck"
1952 - French president inaugurates Donzère-Mondragonstuw Dam
1952 - Nazar Mohammad scores Pakistan's 1st Test century 124* v India
1953 - Cleveland Browns' QB Otto Graham sets club record with 4 fumbles
1953 - Coal mine in Seraing Belgium explodes, 26 die
1953 - Dmitri Sjostakovitch completes his 10th Symphony
1953 - KIEM TV channel 3 in Eureka, CA (NBC/CBS/ABC) begins broadcasting
1955 - Austria resumed its sovereignty after departure of last Allied occupation forces, for 1st time since German occupation of 1938
1955 - Branch Rickey steps down as GM of the Pirates
1955 - Tappan sells 1st microwave oven
1956 - White Sox manager Marty Marion resigns. AL Lopez replaces him
1957 - Russian minister of Defense Zjoekov deposed
1960 - 1st electronic wrist watch placed on sale, NYC
1960 - Cuba nationalizes all remaining US businesses
1961 - USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR
1962 - 110th member of UN admitted (Uganda)
1962 - 1st Belgian nuclear reactor begins operation
Author John SteinbeckAuthor John Steinbeck 1962 - American author John Steinbeck awarded Nobel Prize in literature
1962 - Stevenson demands USSR amb Zorin answer regarding Cuban missle bases saying "I am prepared to wait for my answer until hell freezes over"
1963 - Anti-Kennedy "WANTED FOR TREASON" pamphlets scattered in Dallas
1963 - Beatles begin their 1st full foreign tour in Sweden
1964 - Anton Geesink is 1st non-Japanese Olympic judo gold medal winner
1964 - Ruth Jessen wins LPGA Phoenix Thunderbirds Ladies' Golf Open
1964 - USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR
1964 - Viking Jim Marshall runs 66 yards in wrong direction for a safety
1965 - Rolling Stones release "Get Off of My Cloud"
1966 - 6 youths sentenced in "Johnson murderer!" in Amsterdam
1968 - Chicago recognizes Jean Baptiste Pointe de Sable as its 1st settler
1968 - Longest Oly field hockey game, Hol beats Spain 1-0 in 2h25m (6 OT)
1968 - Yoko Ono announces she is having John Lennon's baby
1970 - Marilynn Smith wins LPGA Women's Golf Charities Open
1971 - Belgium & China PR establish diplomatic relations
Artist & Musician Yoko OnoArtist & Musician Yoko Ono 1971 - General Meeting of UN agrees to admit China PR
1971 - Roy Disney dedicates Walt Disney World
1971 - UN votes to expel Chinese Nationalist-ruled Taiwan & admit Red China
1972 - Eddy Merckx (Belgium) covers 30 miles, 1,258 yards in 1 hr
1972 - Nobel prize for economy awarded to Kenneth J Arrow & John R Hicks
1973 - Chris Wills wins 1st National hang-gliding championship
1973 - Cubs trade Ferguson Jenkins to Rangers for Bill Madlock & Vic Harris
1973 - SF Giants trade Willie McCovey to SD Padres for pitcher Mike Caldwell
1974 - Air Force fires 1st ICBM
1974 - Dmitri Shostakovitch' 15th String Quartet premieres in Leningrad
1974 - Wings release "Junior's Farm"
1975 - Denver Nuggets 1st game at McNichols Sports Arena beat St Louis Spirits
1975 - USSR's Venera 10 makes day-side Venus landing
1976 - 5th Enterprise, approach & lands test (ALT) flight
1976 - Gov Wallace grants full pardon to Clarence Norris, last known survivor of 9 Scottsboro Boys who were convicted in 1931 rape
1977 - Digital Equipment Corporation releases OpenVMS V1.0.
1978 - Israeli government approves "in principle," a draft compromise peace
1978 - Padres Gaylord Perry is 1st to win Cy Young in both leagues (NL)
1979 - USSR performs underground nuclear test
1980 - Mike Weaver KOs Gerrie Coetzee in 13 for heavyweight boxing title
Singer-songwriter & Actress Barbra StreisandSinger-songwriter & Actress Barbra Streisand 1980 - Barbra Streisand's "Guilty," album goes #1 for 3 weeks & her single "Woman In Love," goes #1 for 3 weeks
1981 - 11th NYC Women's Marathon won by Allison Roe in 2:25:29
1981 - 12th NYC Marathon won by Alberto Salazar in 2:08:13
1981 - 200,000 demonstrate in Brussel against cruise missile
1981 - Allison Roe (2:25:29) & Alberto Salazar (2:08:13) win NYC marathon
1981 - George Steinbrenner scuffles with 2 fans in a hotel elevator
1982 - David Hookes scores Cricket century in 34 balls 43 mins, SA v Victoria
1983 - US invades Grenada, a country 1/2,000 its population (US Wins!)
1984 - "Give My Regards to Broad Street" premieres (Gotham Theater-NYC)
1984 - Hepatitis virus is discovered
1984 - King Boudouin opens Museum for Modern Art in Brussels
1984 - Rangers beat Devils 11-2
1984 - USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR
1984 - West German Chancellor Rainer Barzel resigns due to corruption
1985 - Angels announce that they will not offer Rod Carew a new contract
New York Yankees Owner George SteinbrennerNew York Yankees Owner George Steinbrenner 1985 - Kosmos 1700 communications satellite placed in geostationary orbit
1986 - International Red Cross ousted from South Africa
1986 - Michael Sergio Parachutes into Shea Stadium during game 6 of WS
1986 - Trailing 5-3 with 2 out & no one on in bottom of 10th, NY rallies to win Game 6 of the World Series, 6-5, Bill Buckner misplays a ball
1987 - Minnesota Twins win their 1st World Series championship beating St Louis Cards, 4 games to 3 in 84th World Series
1988 - ABC News reports on potbellied pygmy porkers' popularity as pets
1988 - France performs nuclear test at Muruora Island
1990 - Evander Holyfield KOs Buster Douglas in 3 for heavyweight boxing title
1990 - NY Daily News goes on strike (lasts through March, 1991)
1991 - Aaqib Javed takes 7-37 in 10 overs v India in cric 1-dayer at Sharjah
1992 - "Dancing at Lughnasa" closes at Plymouth Theater NYC after 421 perfs
1992 - "Jake's Women" closes at Neil Simon Theater NYC after 245 performances
1992 - Rene Lachemann hired as Fla Marlins 1st manager
1992 - Lithuania holds a referendum on its first post-Soviet constitution.
1993 - Airbus A310 of Air Nigeria hijacked, 1 dead
Champion Boxer Evander HolyfieldChampion Boxer Evander Holyfield 1993 - Canada Liberal Party/Bloc Québécois wins parliamentary election
1993 - Daryll Cullinan hits 337* for Transvaal, SAf 1st-class cricket record
1994 - Susan Smith claims her 2 kids were carjack (she actually killed them)
1995 - "Victor/Victoria," opens at Marquis Theater NYC for 738 performances
1996 - Frank, brother of Yank manager Joe Torre, receives a heart transplant
1997 - After a brief civil war which has driven President Pascal Lissouba out of Brazzaville, Denis Sassou-Nguesso proclaims himself the President of the Republic of the Congo.
2001 - Windows XP first became available.
2004 - Fidel Castro, Cuba's President, announces that transactions using the American Dollar will be banned by November 8.
2007 - The first Airbus A380 passenger flight, operating for Singapore Airlines, with flight number SQ 380, flying scheduled service between Singapore and Sydney, Australia.
2009 - The 25 October 2009 Baghdad bombings kills 155 and wounds at least 721.

2012 - Hurricane Sandy makes landfall in Cuba and Haiti killing 65 people and causing over $80 million in damage

1415 - In Northern France, England won the Battle of Agincourt over France during the Hundred Years' War. Almost 6000 Frenchmen were killed while fewer than 400 were lost by the English.   1812 - During the War of 1812, the U.S. frigate United States captured the British vessel Macedonian.   1854 - The Charge of the Light Brigade took place during the Crimean War. The British were winning the Battle of Balaclava when Lord James Cardigan received an order to attack the Russians. He took his troops into a valley and suffered 40 percent caualties. Later it was revealed that the order was the result of confusion and was not given intentionally.   1870 - The first U.S. trademark was given. The recipient was the Averill Chemical Paint Company of New York City.   1881 - The founder of "Cubism," Pablo Picasso, was born in Malaga, Spain.   1917 - The Bolsheviks (Communists) under Vladimir Ilyich Lenin seized power in Russia.   1929 - Alber B. Fall, of U.S. President Harding's cabinet, was found guilty of taking a bribe. He was sentenced to a year in prison and fined $100,000.   1939 - "The Time of Your Life," by William Saroyan, opened in New York.   1951 - In Panmunjom, peace talks concerning the Korean War resumed after 63 days.   1954 - A U.S. cabinet meeting was televised for the first time.   1955 - The microwave oven, for home use, was introduced by The Tappan Company.   1958 - U.S. Marines withdrew from Beirut, Lebanon. They had been sent in on July 25, 1958, to protect the nation's pro-Western government.   1960 - The Accutron watch by the Bulova Watch Company was introduced.   1962 - U.S. Ambassador Adlai Stevenson presented photographic evidence to the United Nations Security Council. The photos were of Soviet missile bases in Cuba.   1962 - American author John Steinbeck was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature.   1971 - The U.N. General Assembly voted to expel Taiwan and admit mainland China.   1983 - U.S. troops and soldiers from six Caribbean nations invaded Grenada to restore order and provide protection to U.S. citizens after a recent coup within Grenada's Communist (pro-Cuban) government.   1990 - It was announced by U.S. Defense Secretary Dick Cheney that the Pentagon was planning to send 100,000 more troops to Saudi Arabia.   2000 - AT&T Corp. announced that it would restructure into a family of four separately traded companies (consumer, business, broadband and wireless).   2001 - It was announced that scientists had unearthed the remains of an ancient crocodile which lived 110 million years ago. The animal, found in Gadoufaoua, Niger, grew as long as 40 feet and weighed as much as eight metric tons. 

1400 Geoffrey Chaucer died in London. 1415 The Battle of Agincourt between England and France during the Hundred Years War took place. 1760 King George III of Britain was crowned. 1854 The Charge of the Light Brigade took place at Balaklava during the Crimean War. 1962 John Steinbeck was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. 1971 The U.N. General Assembly voted to admit mainland China and expel Taiwan. 1983 The United States invaded the Caribbean nation of Grenada.

The following links are to web sites that were used to complete this blog entry:

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